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If the wind be north, northwest or east, then veer to the northeast, remain there two or three days without rain, and then veer to the south without rain; and if thence it change quickly, though perhaps with a little rain, to the northeast, and remain there-such fine weather will last occasionally for two months.

If there be dry weather with a weak south wind for five, six or seven days, it having previously blown strongly from the same quarter. If spiders, in spinning their webs, make the terminating filaments long, we may, in proportion to their length, conclude that the weather will be serene, and continue so for ten or twelve days. If there are no falling stars to be seen on a bright summer’s evening, you may look for fine weather.

If there be a change from continued stormy or wet to clear and dry weather, at the time of new or full moon, or a short time before or after, and so remain until the second day of the new or full moon, it is likely to remain fine till the following quarter; and if it change not then, or only for a very short time, it usually lasts until the following new or full moon; and if it does not change then, or only for a very short time, it is likely to continue fine and dry for four or five weeks.

If there be a change of weather at the time of the quarters, etc. (under the same circumstances as in preceding paragraph), it will probably last for some time.

Spiders generally alter their webs once in twenty-four hours; if they do this between six and seven in the evening, there will be a fine night; if they alter their web in the morning, a fine day; if they work during rain, expect fine weather; and the more active and busy the spider is, the finer will be the weather.

If near the full moon there be a general mist before sunrise; or if there be a sheep-sky, or white clouds driving to the north west, it will be fine for some days.


If at sunrise many clouds are seen in the west, and then disappear.

If, before sunrise, the fields be covered with a mist.

If the clouds at sunrise fly to the west.

If at sunrise the sun be surrounded by an iris, or circle of white clouds.

If there be red clouds in the west at sunset, it will be fine; if they have a tint of purple, it will be very fine; or if red, bordered with black in the southeast.

If there be a ring or halo round the sun in bad weather.

If the full moon rise clear.

If there be clouds in the east in the evening.

If the wind change from southeast, south or south-west, through the west to the north, without storm or rain.

If there be a change of damp air into cloudy patches, which get thinner.

If clouds at the same height drive up with the wind, and gradually become thinner, and descend.

If a layer of thin clouds drive up from the northwest under other higher clouds driving more south.

If many gnats are seen in spring, expect a warm autumn.

If gnats fly in compact bodies in the beams of the setting sun, there will be fine weather.

If spiders work in the morning early at their webs, there will be a fine day.

If spider’s webs (gossamer), fly in the autumn with a south wind, expect an east wind and fine weather.

If bats flutter and beetles fly about, there will be a fine morrow. If there be lightning without thunder, after a clear day, there will be a continuance of fair weather.

If the mists vanish rapidly, and do not settle upon the hills.

If a north wind remain steady for two or three days. If it rain before sunrise, there will be a fine afternoon.

If a white mist, or dew, form in the evening near a river, and spread over the adjoining land, there will be fine weather.

If in the morning a mist rise from over low lands, it will be fine that day.

If owls scream during foul weather, it will change to fair.

If storks and cranes fly high and steadily.

If there be a rainbow during continued wet weather, the rain is passing from us.

If a rainbow disappears suddenly, it will be fair. If a leech be kept in a glass jar, about three parts filled with water, and placed in a northern aspect, its motions will denote changes in the weather.

Thus, if the leech lie curled up at the bottom of the jar, the weather will be fine or frosty; if it be agitated and rise to the surface of the water, there will be rain, wind or snow; if it be much agitated, and creep entirely out of the water, expect thunder. During heavy storms, leeches often die in great numbers.


If there be, within four, five or six days, two or three changes of the wind from the north through the west to the south, without much rain and wind, and thence again through the west to the north with rain and wind, expect continued showery weather.

If the northwest or north wind, during three, four or more days, blow, with rain and wind, or snow, in the winter, and then pass through the west to the south, expect continued rain and showers.

If the garden spiders break and destroy their webs, and creep away.

If the air be unusually clear during rain, or a very heavy sky, provided the moon be not above the horizon.

If continued fine weather change to wet by full or new moon, and remain till the second day, this bad weather will probably last until the next quarter, and not change then, or only slightly, till the next new or full moon; ‘when, if it change not, this bad weather will very probably continue four or five weeks.

If there be change of continued fine weather, etc., by the quarters, etc. (under the same circumstances as in preceding paragraph), the bad weather may be expected to last some time.

When the sky, in rainy weather, is tinged with sea green, the rain will increase; if with deep blue, it will be showery.


If the sun rise pale, or pale red, or even dark blue, there will be rain during the day.

If the clouds at sunrise be red, there will be rain the following. If at sunrise many dark clouds are seen in the west, and remain, there will be rain on that day.

If the sun rise covered with a dark-spotted cloud; rain the same day. If in the winter there be a red sky at sunrise; steady rain same day; in summer, showers and wind.

If the sun set in dark, heavy clouds, rain next day;

But if it rain directly, wind the following day.

If the sun set pale or purple, rain or wind the following day.

If the sun set, and there be a very red sky in the cast, wind; in the southeast, rain.

If long strips of clouds drive at a slow rate high in the air, and gradually become larger, the sky having been previously clear, there will be wet.

If there be many falling stars on a clear evening, in the summer, there will be thunder.

If there be a change of the wind from the northwest or west, to the southwest or south, or else from the north east or east, to the southeast or south, wet.

If the sun burn more than usual, or there be a halo round the sun during fine weather, wet.

If it rain and the sun shine, showers.

If the full moon rise pale, wet.

If the full moon rise red, wind.

If the stars appear larger, and closer, and flicker, rain or wind. If small white clouds, with rough edges, be seen to gather together, there will be wind.

Before thunder it often begins to blow.

If there be a fleecy sky, unless driving northwest, wet.

If clouds, at different heights float in different directions.

If an assemblage of large or small clouds spread out, or become thicker and darker.

If clouds suddenly appear in the south.

If the lower clouds drive more from the south than those above.

If there be rain about two hours after sunrise, it will be followed by showers.

If there be a damp fog, or mist, accompanied with wind, wet.

If there be a halo round the moon, in fine weather; and the larger the circle, the nearer the rain.

If the stars above fortv-five degrees, especially the North Star, flicker strongly and appear closer than usual, there will be rain. If the morning be clear and sunny, in summer or autumn, there will be rain.

If the fields in the morning be covered with a heavy, wet fog, it will generally rain within two or three days.

"A rainbow in the morning is the shepherd’s warning.

If the leaves of the trees move without any perceptible wind, rain may be expected.

If there be a west and southwest wind in July and December, much rain.

If there be a north wind in April, rain.

If there be an abundance of hoar-frost, rain.

If there be in May a southwest wind, genial showers.

If mists rise and settle on the hill-tops, rain.

If the sky, after fine weather, become wavy, with small clouds, rain.

If in winter, the clouds appear fleecy, with a very blue sky, expect snow or cold rain.

If the clouds pass in opposite directions, both currents moving rapidly, expect more rain.

If the wind blow between north and east, or east, with clouds, for some days, and if clouds be then seen driving from the south high up, rain will follow plentifully, sometimes forty-eight hours afterward. If, after or during the rain, the wind goes to the south or southwest, better weather.

If there be a continuance of rain from the south, it will be scarcely ever succeeded by settled weather before the. wind changes, either to the west or some point of the north.

If rain fall during an east wind, it may be expected to last twenty-four hours.

If old and rheumatic people complain of their corns and joints, and limbs once broken ache at the place of their union.

If the smoke from chimneys blow down; or if soot take fire more readily than usual, or fall down the chimney into the grate, expect rain.

If ditches and drains smell stronger than usual, expect rain; as also if tobacco smoke seems denser and more powerful.

If the marigold continue shut after seven in the evening, rain.

If the convolvulus and chickweed close, there will be rain.

If sheep, rams and goats spring about in the meadows, and fight more than usual.

If asses shake their ears, bray and rub against walls or trees.

If cattle leave off feeding, and chase each other in their pastures.

If cats lick their bodies and wash their faces.

If foxes and dogs howl and bark more than usual; if dogs grow sleepy and dull, also if they eat grass.

If swine be restless, and grunt loudly; if they squeak and jerk up their heads, there will be much wind; whence the proverb-"Pigs can see the wind."

If moles cast up hills, rain if through openings in the frozen turf, or through a thin covering of snow, a change to open weather may be expected.

If horses stretch out their necks and sniff the air, and assemble in the corner of a field, with their heads to leeward, rain.

If rats and mice be restless and squeak much.

If peacocks and guinea-fowls scream and turkeys gobble, and if quails make more noise than usual.

If seabirds fly toward land, and landbirds to sea.

If the cock crow more than usual, and earlier.

If swallows fly lower than usual.

If the crows make a great deal of noise, and fly round and round. If water fowl scream more than usual, and plunge into the water. If birds in general pick their feathers, wash themselves and fly to their nests.

If cranes place their bills under their wings.

If bees remain in their hives, or fly but a short distance from them. If fish bite more readily, and gambol near the surface of the streams or ponds.

If gnats, flies, etc., bite sharper than usual.

If worms creep out of the ground in great numbers.

If frogs and toads croak more than usual.

If the cricket sing louder than usual.

If wood lice run about in great number.

If the owl screech.* *As the owl is most noisy at the change of weather, and as it often happens that patients with lingering diseases die at the change of weather, so the owl, by a mistaken association of ideas, has been said to foretell death. If the sea-anemone shut; and according to the extent it open, so will the weather be fine or less so.


If the clouds be of different heights, the sky above being grayish, or dirty blue, with hardly any wind stirring; the wind, however, changing from west to south, or sometimes to southeast, without perceptibly increasing in force.

If there be a clouded sky, and dark clouds driving fast (either with the wind or more from the south), under the higher clouds, violent gusts of wind.

If there be long points, tails, or feathers hanging from thunder or rain clouds, five, six or more degrees above the horizon, with little wind, in summer, thunder may be expected; but the storm will be generally of short duration.

If there be a tight-blue sky, with thin, light, flying clouds, whilst the wind goes to the south without much increase in force, or a dirty-blue sky, where no clouds are to be seen, storm.

If the sun be seen double, or more times reflected in the clouds, expect a heavy storm.

If the sun set with a very red sky in the east, expect stormy wind. If two or three rings be seen round the moon, which are spotted and spread out, expect a storm of long continuance.

If porpoises and whales sport about ships.

If seagulls and other birds fly inland.

Storms are most frequent in December, January and February. In September there are generally one or two storms. If it blow in the day, it generally hushes toward evening; but if it continue blowing then, it may be expected to continue. The vernal equinoctial gales are stronger than the autumnal.


If the sky become darker, without much rain, and divide into two layers of clouds, expect sudden gusts of wind.

If the sun or moon be passing through the south or north, the storm having already commenced.


The rising or setting of sun or moon, but especially of the moon.


If long, horizontal strips appear with two or three edges spreading out at top into feathers, and passing over the middle of other clouds, generally there will be thunder.

If the clouds be uniformly black, or dark gray.

In May and July it thunders most; in May, expect

thunder with a southwest wind.

If there be northeast or easterly wind in the spring, after a strong increase of heat, and small clouds appear in different parts of the sky; or if the wind change from east to south at the appearance of clouds preceded by heat.

If a morning fog form into clouds, at different heights, which increase in size and drive in layers.

If clouds float at different heights and rates, but generally in opposite directions.

If there be many "falling stars" on a fine summer’s eve.

If there be sheet lightning, with a clear sky, on spring, summer and autumn evenings.

If the wind be hushed with sudden heat.

If clover contract its leaves.

If there be thunder in the evening, there will be much rain and showery weather.


If an east wind blow against a dark, heavy sky from the westward, the wind decreasing in force as the clouds approach.

If the clouds rise and twist in different directions.

If the birds be silent.

If cattle run round and collect together in the meadows.


If there be showery weather, with sunshine, and increase of heat in the spring, a thunder storm may be expected every day, or at least every other day.


If the air be very dry, with clear, yet cooler weather; or if one or two following days the atmosphere be heavy, with a little damp falling.

With a north wind it seldom thunders; but with a south and southwest wind, often.


If the wind change to the north and northeast.

If the wind change, in summer only, to the northwest.

If the wind shift to the east in summer only.

If the wind shift from south to southeast in winter.


If the wind shift round to the south and southwest.

If the wind change from east, northeast or north, to northwest and west, in the winter.

If the wind change to the east, in summer only; especially if from northeast.

If the wind change to southeast, especially in summer.


If birds of passage arrive early from colder climates.

If the cold increase while it snows, as soon as it begins to freeze.

If the wind blow northeast in winter.

If the ice crack much, expect the frost to continue.

If the mole dig his hole two feet and a half deep, expect a very severe winter; if two feet deep, not so severe; one foot deep, a mild winter.

If waterfowl or sparrows make more noise than usual; also if robbins approach nearer houses than usual, frost.

If there be a dark, gray sky, with a south wind. If there be continued fogs.

If the fire burn unusually fierce and bright in winter, there will be frost and clear weather; if the fire burn dull, expect damp and rain. It seldom freezes with a west wind; not much with a north; most with a northeast, southeast and sometimes south wind.


If snow fall in flakes, which increase in size.

If the heat increase in the afternoon, or suddenly before twelve o’clock.

If clouds drive up high from the south, southwest or west.

If it freeze, and the barometer fall twenty or thirty hundredths.


If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, it is the sign of another. If not, and there is no wind, rain must follow. A red evening portends fine weather; but if it spread too far upward from the horizon in the evening, and especially morning, it foretells wind or rain, or both.

Against much rain, the clouds grow bigger and increase very fast, especially before thunder.

A haziness in the air, which fades the sun’s light, and makes the orb appear whitish, or ill-defined - or at night, if the moon and stars grow dim, and a ring encircles the former, rain will follow. When the clouds are formed like fleeces, but dense in the middle and bright toward the edges, with the sky bright, they are signs of a frost, with hail, snow or rain.

If clouds form high in air, in thin, white trains, like locks of wool, they portend wind and probably rain.

When a general cloudiness covers the sky, and small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they are a sure sign of rain and probably it will be lasting.

If the sun’s rays appear like Moses’ horns-if white at setting or shorn of his rays, or goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad weather is to be expected.

If the moon look pale and dim, we expect rain; if red, wind; and if of her natural color, with a clear sky, fair weather. If the moon is rainy throughout, it will be clear at the change, and perhaps the rain return a few days after. If fair throughout, and rain at the change, the fair weather will probably return on the fourth or fifth day.

When the new moon is first seen lying flat on its back, it foretells a drought; if it is partially inclined, sufficiently so that a pail of water might be hung on the lower horn and not spill, it denotes fair weather; if it appears to stand nearly upright, it indicates rain and is called a wet moon.

If a snowstorm begins at a time when the moon is young, the rising of the moon will clear the snow away.

If it rains while the sun is shining, it signifies rain on the following day.

A rainbow toward evening is a promise of clear weather, but in the morning it betokens rain.

The first frost of the season appears six weeks after the katydids are first heard.

A fog in February denotes a frost in the following May.


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